Please read the attached article about allelopathy effects and review the paper. Minimum two pages typed in Time Roman font 12 double space including images.
REVIEW published: 17 November 2015 doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.01020
Edited by: Richard Sayre,
New Mexico Consortium at Los Alamos National Labs, USA
Reviewed by: Shan Lu,
Nanjing University, China Bala Rathinasabapathi,
University of Florida, USA
*Correspondence: Zhihui Cheng
Specialty section: This article was submitted to
Plant Physiology, a section of the journal
Frontiers in Plant Science
Received: 14 July 2015 Accepted: 04 November 2015 Published: 17 November 2015
Citation: Cheng F and Cheng Z (2015) Research Progress on the use
of Plant Allelopathy in Agriculture and the Physiological and Ecological
Mechanisms of Allelopathy. Front. Plant Sci. 6:1020.
Research Progress on the use of Plant Allelopathy in Agriculture and the Physiological and Ecological Mechanisms of Allelopathy Fang Cheng and Zhihui Cheng*
College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China
Allelopathy is a common biological phenomenon by which one organism produces biochemicals that influence the growth, survival, development, and reproduction of other organisms. These biochemicals are known as allelochemicals and have beneficial or detrimental effects on target organisms. Plant allelopathy is one of the modes of interaction between receptor and donor plants and may exert either positive effects (e.g., for agricultural management, such as weed control, crop protection, or crop re- establishment) or negative effects (e.g., autotoxicity, soil sickness, or biological invasion). To ensure sustainable agricultural development, it is important to exploit cultivation systems that take advantage of the stimulatory/inhibitory influence of allelopathic plants to regulate plant growth and development and to avoid allelopathic autotoxicity. Allelochemicals can potentially be used as growth regulators, herbicides, insecticides, and antimicrobial crop protection products. Here, we reviewed the plant allelopathy management practices applied in agriculture and the underlying allelopathic mechanisms described in the literature. The major points addressed are as follows: (1) Description of management practices related to allelopathy and allelochemicals in agriculture. (2) Discussion of the progress regarding the mode of action of allelochemicals and the physiological mechanisms of allelopathy, consisting of the influence on cell micro- and ultra-structure, cell division and elongation, membrane permeability, oxidative and antioxidant systems, growth regulation systems, respiration, enzyme synthesis and metabolism, photosynthesis, mineral ion uptake, protein and nucleic acid synthesis. (3) Evaluation of the effect of ecological mechanisms exerted by allelopathy on microorganisms and the ecological environment. (4) Discussion of existing problems and proposal for future research directions in this field to provide a useful reference for future studies on plant allelopathy.
Keywords: allelochemical, allelopathy, agriculture practice, physiological mechanism, ecological mechanism, microorganism, agricultural sustainable development
INTRODUCTION Allelopathy is a sub-discipline of chemical ecology that is concerned with the effects of chemicals produced by plants or microorganisms on the growth, development and distribution of other plants and microorganisms in natural communities or agricultural systems (Einhellig, 1995). The study of allelopathy increased in the 1970s and has undergone rapid development since the mid-1990s,
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becoming a popular topic in botany, ecology, agronomy, soil science, horticulture, and other areas of inquiry in recent years. The allelopathic interaction can be one of the significant factors contributing to species distribution and abundance within plant communities and can be important in the success of invasive plants (Chou, 1999; Mallik, 2003; Field et al., 2006; Inderjit et al., 2006; Zheng et al., 2015), such as water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms) (Jin et al., 2003; Gao and Li, 2004), spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe L. ssp. micranthos) (Broeckling and Vivanco, 2008) and garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata M. Bieb) (Vaughn and Berhow, 1999). Allelopathy is also thought to be one of the indirect causes of continuous cropping obstacles in agriculture. As a result of the in-depth study of allelopathy, strategies for the management of agricultural production and ecological restoration involving the application of allelopathy and allelochemicals are improving. The main purposes of this review are to present conclusions regarding the application of allelopathy in agricultural production, to highlight the physiological and ecological mechanisms underlying plant allelopathy, to illustrate the effect of allelopathy on soil microorganisms and to discuss key points for further research.
ALLELOPATHY AND ALLELOCHEMICALS The definition of allelopathy was first used by Molish in 1937 to indicate all of the effects that directly and indirectly result from biochemical substances transferred from one plant to another (Molisch, 1937). Almost half a century later, the accepted targets of allelochemicals in the plant kingdom include algae, fungi and various microorganisms. The term was refined by Rice (1984) to define “any direct or indirect harmful or beneficial effect by one plant (including microorganisms) on another through production of chemical compounds that escape into the environment” (Rice, 1984). In 1996, the International Allelopathy Society broadened its definition of allelopathy to refer to any process involving secondary metabolites produced by plants, microorganisms, viruses and fungi that influence the growth and development of agricultural and biological systems. In addition, the allelopathic donor and receiver should include animals (Kong and Hu, 2001).
Allelochemicals, which are non-nutritive substances mainly produced as plant secondary metabolites or decomposition products of microbes, are the active media of allelopathy. Allelochemicals consist of various chemical families and are classified into the following 14 categories based on chemical similarity (Rice, 1974): water-soluble organic acids, straight- chain alcohols, aliphatic aldehydes, and ketones; simple unsaturated lactones; long-chain fatty acids and polyacetylenes;
Abbreviations: APX, ascorbic acid peroxidase; BNI, biological nitrification inhibition; BNIS, biological nitrification inhibition substances; BOA, 2(3H)- benzoxazolinone; C4H, cinnamate-4-hydroxylase; CAT, catalase; COMT, caffeic acid O-methyltransferases; DEP, diethyl phthalate; DIBOA, 4-dihydroxy- 1,4(2H)-benzoxazin-3-one; DTD, [4, 7-dimethyl-1-(propan-2-ylidene)-1, 4, 4a, 8a-tetrahydronaphthalene-2, 6(1H, 7H)-dione]; F5H, ferulic acid 5-hydroxylase; GR, glutathione reductase; GS, glutamine synthetase; HHO, [6-hydroxyl-5-isopropyl-3, 8-dimethyl-4a, 5, 6, 7, 8, 8a-hexahydronaphthalen-2(1H)-one]; ISR, induced systemic resistance; MDA, malondialdehyde; NiR, nitrate reductase; NIS, nitrification-inhibiting substances; PA, pyrogallic acid; PAL, phenylalanine ammonialyase; PDMS, polydimethylsiloxane; PGPR, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria; POD, peroxidase; PPO, polyphenol oxidase; QTL, quantitative trait locus; RAPD, random amplification of polymorphic DNA; ROS, reactive oxygen species; SDH, succinodehydrogenase; SOD, superoxide dismutase; STEM, silicone tubing microextraction.
benzoquinone, anthraquinone and complex quinones; simple phenols, benzoic acid and its derivatives; cinnamic acid and its derivatives; coumarin; flavonoids; tannins; terpenoids and steroids; amino acids and peptides; alkaloids and cyanohydrins; sulfide and glucosinolates; and purines and nucleosides. Plant growth regulators, including salicylic acid, gibberellic acid and ethylene, are also considered to be allelochemicals. The rapid progress of analysis technology in recent years has made it possible to isolate and identify even minute amounts of allelochemicals and to perform sophisticated structural analyses of these molecules. The structures of some allelochemicals produced by plants are shown in Figure 1.
MANAGEMENT OF PLANT ALLELOPATHY IN AGRICULTURE
Allelopathy is a natural ecological phenomenon. It has been known and used in agriculture since ancient times (Zeng, 2008, 2014). Allelochemicals can stimulate or inhibit plant germination and growth, and permit the development of crops with low phytotoxic residue amounts in water and soil, thus facilitating wastewater treatment and recycling (Macias et al., 2003; Zeng et al., 2008). They are a suitable substitute for synthetic herbicides because allelochemicals do not have residual or toxic effects, although the efficacy and specificity of many allelochemicals are limited (Bhadoria, 2011). The main purposes of research on allelopathy include the application of the observed allelopathic effects to agricultural production, reduction of the input of chemical pesticides and consequent environmental pollution, and provision of effective methods for the sustainable development of agricultural production and ecological systems (Macias et al., 2003; Li et al., 2010; Han et al., 2013; Jabran et al., 2015). The use of allelopathic crops in agriculture is currently being realized, e.g., as components of crop rotations, for intercropping, as cover crops or as green manure (Cheema and Khaliq, 2000; Singh et al., 2003; Cheema et al., 2004; Khanh et al., 2005; Reeves et al., 2005; Yildirim and Guvenc, 2005; Iqbal et al., 2007; Mahmood et al., 2013; Wortman et al., 2013; Farooq et al., 2014; Silva et al., 2014; Wezel et al., 2014; Haider et al., 2015). The applications of allelopathy in crop production in Pakistan are successful examples in recent years (Cheema et al., 2013). The suitable application of allelopathy toward the improvement of crop productivity and environmental protection through environmentally friendly control of weeds, insect pests, crop diseases, conservation of nitrogen in crop lands, and the synthesis of novel agrochemicals based on allelochemicals has attracted much attention from scientists engaged in allelopathic research.
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FIGURE 1 | Structures of some of the allelochemicals produced by plants.
ARRANGEMENT OF CROPPING SYSTEMS Competition is one of the main modes of interaction between cultivated crops and their neighboring plants (Inderjit and Moral, 1997; Xiong et al., 2005; He et al., 2012b; An et al., 2013). Allelopathy is a chemical mechanism that provides plants with an advantage for competing for limited resources (Singh et al., 1999; He et al., 2012b; Gioria and Osborne, 2014). The ability of plants to suppress weeds is thus determined by crop allelopathy and competitiveness. Crop allelopathy can be effectively used to control weeds in the field, to alleviate allelopathic autotoxicity and reduce inhibitory influence among allelopathic crops (Iqbal et al., 2007; John et al., 2010; Farooq et al., 2013; Andrew et al., 2015), to improve the utilization rate of land and to increase the annual output of the soil by establishing reasonable crop rotation and intercropping systems. For example, Odeyemi et al. (2013) reported relative abundance and population suppression of plant parasitic nematodes under Chromolaena odorata (L.) (Asteraceae) fallow in a field study conducted over 2 years, and suggested that the use of bush fallow with C. odorata might become an
integrated management practice in the management of nematode pests in crop production in south-western Nigeria. Intercropping is a common practice among farmers in developing countries for maximizing land resources and reducing the risks of single crop failure. Weed population density and biomass production can be markedly reduced using crop rotation and intercropping systems (Liebman and Dyck, 1993; Narwal, 2000; Nawaz et al., 2014; Jabran et al., 2015). Intercropping of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) in a cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) field produced greater net benefits and a significant inhibition on purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) in comparison with the cotton alone in a 2- year experiment (Iqbal et al., 2007). Recently, Wang et al. (2015) reported that eggplant/garlic relay intercropping is a beneficial cultivation practice to maintain stronger eggplant growth and higher yield. However, the allelopathy between different species may cause promontory or inhibitory effects. Farooq et al. (2014) reported that when grown in rotation with tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), the stand establishment and growth of maize (Zea mays L.) were improved compared to mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), whereas mungbean stand establishment and growth were suppressed. Therefore, the allelopathic nature of crops must be considered in crop rotation, intercropping and stalk mulching (Xuan et al., 2005; Cheng et al., 2011; Cheng and Xu, 2013).
STRAW MULCHING In conventional agriculture, weed control using herbicides is not only an expensive practice; it is also harmful to the environment. Allelopathic applications, such as straw mulching, provide sustainable weed management (Jabran et al., 2015), further reducing the negative impact of agriculture on the environment (Cheema and Khaliq, 2000; Cheema et al., 2004). Using allelopathic plants as ground cover species provides an environmental friendly option (Dhima et al., 2006; Moraes et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2013a). The allelochemicals from decomposed straw can suppress weed growth in farmlands, and reduce the incidence of pests and diseases. Moreover, straw mulch can improve the soil organic matter content and increase soil fertility. However, it may also have negative effects by increasing the C: N ratio of the soil. Research has shown that green wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw inhibits the growth of Ipomoea weeds in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean fields, thereby reducing the need for herbicide application. Rye (Secale cereale L.) mulch significantly reduced the germination and growth of several problematic agronomic grass and broadleaf weeds (Figure 2; Schulz et al., 2013). The transformation reactions of rye allelochemicals, i.e., benzoxazinoids, in soil led primarily to the production of phenoxazinones, which can be degraded by several specialized fungi via the Fenton reaction. Because of their selectivity, specific activity, and presumably limited persistence in the soil, benzoxazinoids or rye residues are suitable means for weed control (Schulz et al., 2013). Furthermore, Tabaglio et al. (2008) found that the allelopathic inhibition effects on weeds differ between different cultivars of rye straw used for mulching. Xuan et al. (2005) concluded that the application of allelopathic
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FIGURE 2 | Field trial on rye mulch preceding a tomato crop in a biological farm (Schulz et al., 2013). Left, test plot with rye mulch left on the soil surface, showing the good weed suppression ability. Right, control plot without rye mulch, split into two treatments: left side, untreated sub-plot in which tomato plants are almost completely overgrown by weeds; right side, sub-plot with mechanical control by cultivation, in which tomato plants grow as well as those in the test plot.
plant materials at 1–2 tons ha−1 could reduce weed biomass by approximately 70%, and increase rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield by approximately 20% in paddy fields (1998–2003) compared with the respective controls. In the southeastern region of Brazil, coffee (Coffea arabica) fruit peels, which contain allelochemicals such as phenols, flavonoids and caffeine, are often used as an organic amendment in agricultural practice to control weeds (Silva et al., 2013). An et al. (2013) found that switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) plants and residues reduced the biomass and density of associated weeds, and their research provided weed management strategies in agroecosystems and important information for the introduction of switchgrass into new ecosystems. Water extracts of Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronquist, Trianthema portulacastrum L., and Pulicaria undulata (L.) C. A. Mey. can be applied at a concentration of 10 g L−1 to manage the weed Brassica tournefortii Gouan by inhibiting germination and seedling growth (Abd El- Gawad, 2014). Moreover, some soybeans induce the germination of sunflower broomrape (Orobanche spp.), a noxious parasitic weed, which suggests that soybean has the potential to be used as a trap crop to reduce the seed bank of sunflower broomrape (Zhang et al., 2013b).
DEVELOPING ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY AGROCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PESTICIDES Allelochemicals with negative allelopathic effects are important components of plant defense mechanisms against weeds and herbivory. The technology that modifies allelochemicals for the production of environmentally friendly pesticides and plant growth regulators allows the effective management of agricultural production and confers few environmental problems in the soil due to the fairly high degradability of allelochemicals (Bhadoria, 2011; Ihsan et al., 2015). Uddin et al. (2014) revealed that sorgoleone, a hydrophobic compound found in Sorghum bicolor
(L.) root exudates, was more effective in inhibiting weed growth after formulation as a wettable powder, while crop species were tolerant to it. Some microorganisms are capable of using sorgoleone as a carbon source. Sorgoleone can be mineralized via complete degradation to CO2 in soil, although the different chemical groups of the molecule were not mineralized equally (Gimsing et al., 2009). The strong weed-suppressive ability of formulated sorgoleone raised interest as an effective, natural, environmentally friendly approach for weed management. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) include a wide range of beneficial bacteria that confer positive effects on plants, such as eliciting induced systemic resistance (ISR), promoting plant growth and reducing susceptibility to diseases caused by plant pathogens (Kloepper et al., 1980, 2004). Allelopathic bacteria can achieve the same function in mixtures of bacteria that exhibit PGPR attributes and activity against allelopathic weeds, which reduces the inhibitory effect on susceptible plants caused by allelopathic weeds (Kremer, 2006; Mishra and Nautiyal, 2012). There are some organic herbicides or plant growth inhibitors that have been manufactured from allelopathic plant materials to inhibit weed growth in fields (Guillon, 2003; Ogata et al., 2008; Miyake, 2009). Ogata et al. (2008) manufactured a type of herbicide comprised of a mixture of components extracted from pine (Pinus L.), hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.), or Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and bamboo (Bambusoideae; Poaceae) vinegar, which provided a practical method of utilizing plant allelopathy in paddy fields.
REDUCTION OF NITROGEN LEACHING AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Nitrogen leaching is a severe ecological problem due to water pollution. Mineralization of soil organic nitrogen, especially the nitrification of nitrogen fertilizer, is one of the main reasons for the enrichment of nitrogen in the soil. Biological
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nitrification inhibition (BNI) has gradually become the main target in investigating the effect of plants on soil nitrification. In recent years, studies have proven that nitrification-inhibiting substances (NIS) produced by plants are the first choice for soil nitrification management. For example, biological nitrification inhibition substances (BNIS) are allelochemicals that are able to inhibit soil nitrification. Wheat allelochemicals, such as ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and hydroxamic acid, can act on soil microbes to inhibit soil nitrification, reduce the emission of N2O, improve the utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer and reduce pollution to the environment (Ma, 2005). Dietz et al. (2013) found that the allelopathic plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) plant has inhibitory effects on soil nitrogen mineralization, suggesting that plantain could be utilized to reduce soil nitrogen leaching.
BREEDING OF ALLELOPATHIC CULTIVARS Allelopathic cultivars, which have great potential to minimize the introduction of refractory chemicals and effectively control weeds in farmland ecosystems, represent the most promising application of allelopathy (Mahmoud and Croteau, 2002; Weston and Duke, 2003; Fragasso et al., 2013). Both conventional breeding methods and those developed using transgenic technology can be applied in the breeding of allelopathic cultivars. Successful cultivars must also combine a weed suppression ability with high yield potential, disease resistance, early maturity and quality traits (Gealy and Yan, 2012). Rondo, a rice cultivar that combines a high yield potential with rice blast resistance and weed suppression ability, has been grown in a commercial organic rice production operation in Texas and its weed-suppressive ability is superior to that of many commercial cultivars (Yan and McClung, 2010; Gealy and Yan, 2012). Huagan 3, a particularly promising F8 generation line derived from crosses between the local rice cultivars N9S and PI 312777, is considered to be the first commercially acceptable weed-suppressive cultivar in China (Kong et al., 2011). Bertholdsson (2010) bred spring wheat for improved allelopathic potential by conventional breeding. The material used originated from a cross between a Swedish cultivar with low allelopathic activity and a Tunisian cultivar with high allelopathic activity. The result from the field study was a 19% average reduction in weed biomass for the high allelopathic lines. However, a negative effect was that the grain yield was reduced by 9% in the high allelopathic lines. In this research, the high allelopathic lines showed a lower early biomass compared with the control. If the early biomass of the allelopathic wheat had also been improved, the weed biomass should have been much lower (Bertholdsson, 2004). Putative genes related to the weed competition ability of wheat have been found on chromosomes 1A, 2B, and 5D via quantitative trait locus (QTL) identification, which might be helpful for the breeding of allelopathic wheat (Zuo et al., 2012a). However, until now, a successful allelopathic wheat cultivar has not been obtained. To increase crop resistance to continuous cropping obstacles and autotoxicity and in the selection of crop successions, species’ detoxification potential should be considered as an important indicator of breeding.
MECHANISMS UNDERLYING ALLELOPATHY Allelopathy has been studied for quite some time, and many aspects of plant physiological and biochemical processes have been proved to be affected by allelochemicals (Zeng et al., 2001; Gniazdowska and Bogatek, 2005). A series of physiological and biochemical changes in plants induced by allelochemicals are detailed as follows.
CHANGES IN THE MICRO- AND ULTRA-STRUCTURE OF CELLS The shape and structure of plant cells are affected by allelochemicals. Volatile monoterpenes, eucalyptol and camphor can widen and shorten root cells, in addition to inducing nuclear abnormalities and increasing vacuole numbers (Bakkali et al., 2008; Pawlowski et al., 2012). Cruz Ortega et al. (1988) found that a corn pollen extract reduced mitotic activity by more than 50%, induced nuclear irregularities and pyknotic nuclei, and inhibited radicle and hypocotyl growth in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus). Upon exposure to hordenine and gramine, which are allelochemicals from barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots, the radicle tips of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) exhibited damaged cell walls, increases in both the size and number of vacuoles, disorganization of organelles, and cell autophagy (Liu and Lovett, 1993). Likewise, cinnamic acid significantly deformed the ultrastructure of cucumber chloroplasts and mitochondria (Wu et al., 2004). After treatment with benzoic acid, mustard (Brassica juncea L.) roots displayed irregularly shaped cells arranged in a disorganized manner and disruption of cell organelles (Kaur et al., 2005). Allelochemicals from Convolvulus arvensis L. and catmint (Nepeta meyeri Benth.) can alter the random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiles of receiver plants (Kekec et al., 2013; Sunar et al., 2013). Citral is a volatile essential oil component of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citrates) and other aromatic plants that has been suggested to have allelopathic traits (Dudai et al., 1999). It was reported that citral can cause disruption of microtubules in wheat and Arabidopsis thaliana L. roots, where the mitotic microtubules were more strongly affected than the cortical microtubules (Chaimovitsh et al., 2010, 2012). Moreover, citral has a strong long-term disorganizing effect on the cell ultra-structure of A. thaliana seedlings, thickening the cell wall and reducing intercellular communication and the formation of root hairs (Grana et al., 2013).
INHIBITION OF CELL DIVISION AND ELONGATION Allelochemical monoterpenoids (camphor, 1,8-cineole, beta- pinene, alpha-pinene, and camphene) affected cell proliferation and DNA synthesis in plant meristems (Nishida et al., 2005); 2(3H)-benzoxazolinone (BOA) inhibited the mitotic process, especially the G2-M checkpoint of lettuce (Sanchez-Moreiras et al., 2008); and sorgoleone reduced the number of cells in each cell division period, damaging tubulins and resulting in polyploid nuclei (Hallak et al., 1999). Burgos et al. (2004)
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argued that the rye allelochemicals BOA and 2, 4-dihydroxy- 1,4(2H)-benzoxazin-3-one (DIBOA) significantly inhibited the regeneration of cucumber root cap cells and thus inhibited growth. Following the treatment of soybean with aqueous leaf extracts from Datura stramonium L., Cai and Mu (2012) found that higher concentrations of the extracts inhibited primary root elongation and lateral root development, decreased root hair length and density, inhibited cell division in root tips and increased the chromosomal aberration index and micronucleus index. Teerarak et al. (2012) suggested that the ethyl acetate fraction of Aglaia odorata Lour. leaves inhibited mitosis and induced mitotic abnormalities in Allium cepa roots by damaging chromatin organization and the mitotic spindle in roots exposed to the allelochemicals.
IMBALANCES IN THE ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM The generation and clearing of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the balance of the redox state in the cell play an important role in allelopathic effects. After exposure to allelochemicals, the recipient plants may rapidly produce ROS in the contact area (Bais et al., 2003; Ding et al., 2007), and alter the activity of antioxida
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