Please make sure that it is your own work and not copy paste. Please watch out for spelling errors and grammar errors. Please use the APA 7 edition format. Please read the study guide.
Book Reference: Roberts, C., & Hyatt, L. (2019). The dissertation journey: A practical and comprehensive guide to planning, writing, and defending your dissertation (3rd ed.). Corwin. https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781506373331
Share your final chosen statement of the business problem. What is your intended method and design, and how can you justify their appropriateness for your study? When responding to another student's post, discuss how they might justify their method and design that they may not have considered.
BUS 8304, The Doctoral Research Study Journey 1
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
3. Analyze the literature review process necessary to complete the doctoral research study. 3.1 Examine scholarly articles for inclusion in a literature review.
Course/Unit Learning Outcomes
3.1 Unit Lesson Article: “Supervision in Coaching: Systematic Literature Review” Unit III Scholarly Activity
Required Unit Resources In order to access the following resource, click the link below.
Bachkirova, T., Jackson, P., Hennig, C., & Moral, M. (2020, Autumn). Supervision in coaching: Systematic
literature review. International Coaching Psychology Review, 15(2), 31–53. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?dire ct=true&db=a9h&AN=144722661&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Unit Lesson At this point in your dissertation journey, you may be asking yourself several questions, or you may not be sure where to move next. You are not alone in this regard. Organization is the key to make sure you can complete your doctoral journey, especially regarding writing a literature review.
Where to Begin Preparing for and creating a literature review can seem like a daunting task. For many doctoral students, it is the hardest part of writing the doctoral study/dissertation. In Unit II, the unit lesson provided you with tips on how to critically review a journal article. You were given examples of questions that you should ask as you read each article. Not only is it important to understand all of the methods and procedures for the study, but it is also critical to understand how it fits into your study. How can you use the article in your writing? Again,
UNIT III STUDY GUIDE
Building a Literature Review
BUS 8304, The Doctoral Research Study Journey 2
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
how does it support your study? For example, does it provide justification for some decision that you have made? Does it support the gap? Is it a component of one of the themes you found and will discuss in your literature review? Does it provide support for your methodology, design, or method choices? Does it provide background information for the theory or model you chose for your theoretical/conceptual framework? Once you decide an article is appropriate for your paper and you know how it will support your study, you can begin to categorize the articles.
Importance of Categorizing Articles Articles should be categorized because you will want to be organized and be able to quickly access the right articles when it comes time to write your literature review. Imagine that you are working on your literature review, and you want to write about current research for your chosen theoretical or conceptual framework. If you do not know which articles those are, then you will waste time looking for them. One method of categorizing is to save the articles in different folders on your computer. For example, you could create folders titled as methodology, design, technology acceptance model (TAM), or others to house your articles. If one article is used in multiple ways, then you could save the article in multiple folders. The downside of this approach is that you do not have any specific information for each article. Again, you may waste time rereading articles to find what you need.
Tools Needed to Succeed One method, which is ideal for those of us who like to hold paper in hand, scribble notes, and use highlighters, is to print the article (if it is short) or print the abstract page (if it is lengthy). You can categorize the article based on your need for it and write the categories at the top. The following are examples of categorizations depending on your topic: qualitative, case study, job satisfaction, and financial industry. You can highlight the passages that are important to you. Then, you can create physical folders for your articles. Another method is to create an Excel workbook to hold this information. With this approach, you could create sheet tabs at the bottom of the workbook for each category and, within that page (worksheet), store all of the information about the articles. This way, if articles serve more than one purpose, you can copy and paste a row under multiple tabs. An example of the type of information to collect from each article in order to place in an Excel worksheet is provided below.
• Data collection method
• Data analysis method
• Pertinent findings Either of these approaches work. The point is to have those articles handy when you write about that topic. Do what works for you! Do not waste energy and time!
Literature Review Topics The type of topics that can be used for a literature review differ based on the university and may vary slightly based on your study, so it is important that you pay close attention to your Columbia Southern University (CSU) template. A suggestion for an outline is below, but again, your headings and subheadings will be tailored to your study.
BUS 8304, The Doctoral Research Study Journey 3
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Review the suggested outline below.
• Chapter 2: Literature Review o Introduction
• Theoretical Foundations o Theory/Model 1 o Theory/Model 2
• Review of the Literature o Topic 1
▪ Subtopic 1.1 ▪ Subtopic 1.2
o Topic 2 o Topic 3 o Methodology o Instrumentation or Data Collection Method
• Summary This outline does not tell you what must be included in these sections. In the CSU template, there are specific guidelines, but for the purposes of this class and discussion, a summary of each is provided below. The verbiage below the main heading is introductory information about what is contained in the chapter and how you conducted your literature review. Theoretical Foundations This section contains the theories or models you chose for your theoretical/conceptual framework. You will want to discuss each theory or model in-depth, including the author, the year it was created, the components, and how it will support your study. You will want to include a review of current research using that theory or model. For example, you might be using leadership style as one of your quantitative study independent variables, so you would likely be using Bass and Avolio’s (1990) full-range of transformational leadership model as a part of your theoretical framework. Similarly, you might be using toxic leadership in a qualitative study, so you might use Padilla et al.’s (2007) toxic triangle as a part of your conceptual framework. Either way, you would want to provide current research studies that use the model or theory that you will use as your theoretical/conceptual framework. Review of the Literature This section contains a discussion of all of the current research on your topic. If you are doing a qualitative study, the current research articles will be exhaustive and based on your phenomenon. If you are doing a quantitative study, the current research articles will be exhaustive and based on your variables. Topics Topics in your literature review refer to the themes that you found when gathering your current research articles. For example, you may have four main topics: leadership, motivation, creativity, and job satisfaction. Subtopics Subtopics are subthemes under each main theme. For example, under the main theme of motivation, you might have found some studies involving extrinsic motivators and some studies that involve intrinsic motivators. Methodology Under this heading, you will discuss the current research articles you found that use the same methodology and design that you are using for your research study. These articles support your decisions. For example, let’s assume that based on your problem statement and research questions, you chose a qualitative, multiple
BUS 8304, The Doctoral Research Study Journey 4
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
case study as your methodology and design. You will want to reference other current research studies that have used a qualitative case study design to explore topics similar to yours. Instrumentation or Data Collection Method Under this heading, you will discuss the current research articles you found that use the same instrument (quantitative) or data collection methods (qualitative) that you are using for your research study. These articles support your decisions. For example, let’s assume that one of your quantitative independent variables is leadership style. How do you define leadership style? There are many ways to do this. Perhaps you would use autocratic versus democratic leadership styles. Let’s assume you want to use Bass and Avolio’s (1990) full-range of transformational leadership model for your leadership styles. This means you would use the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 5X (MLQ 5X) instrument that includes transformational versus transactional versus laissez-faire leadership. How can you justify this decision in your study? You would find current research articles that have used the MLQ 5X survey instrument for leadership styles. Then, you would discuss the articles in this section of your literature review. Summary Just like most summaries, this section contains a brief discussion of what was included in your Chapter 2. The final paragraph tells the reader what is to come in Chapters 3, 4, and 5.
Putting the Pieces Together By the time you write your literature review, you will have read and collected at least 50 peer-reviewed articles. In reality that number will probably be closer to 100 articles. You will have identified all of the important aspects of each article. You will have categorized each article so that you know exactly how it supports your study or which theme/subtheme it fits under. You have everything you need. Before you start writing, it is suggested that you create your own outline. You can use the outline above as your guide. What are the main themes that you found? What are the subthemes? Once you have your outline, then you can start to write by focusing on each section. Pull those articles up that you need for that section. Make your assertions, and then use the articles as support. Compare and contrast your selection of articles. It sounds easy, but it is not. It is a long process, and it can be arduous, but if you approach it systematically and follow the guidance provided in Unit II and Unit III, you will have a good literature review before you know it.
References Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1990). The multifactor leadership questionnaire. Consulting Psychologists Press. Faithiecannoise. (n.d.). ID 66889533 [Illustration]. Dreamstime. https://www.dreamstime.com/stock-photo-
writing-dissertation-graduate-holding-books-laptop-d-students-big-stack-thesis-draft-image66889533 Padilla, A., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R. B. (2007, June). The toxic triangle: Destructive leaders, susceptible
followers, and conducive environments. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(3), 176–194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.03.001
Suggested Unit Resources Chapter 6 offers insight into how you can organize your time and space when you are working on your doctoral study/dissertation Chapter 6: Organizing Yourself
BUS 8304, The Doctoral Research Study Journey 5
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Although you read Chapter 9 in the last unit, reviewing it again will be helpful when writing your literature review. Chapter 9: Reviewing the Literature
Learning Activities (Nongraded) Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. Read the article provided in the Required Unit Resources section. Write a one-page reflection paper detailing the iterative and systematic process of building a literature review. Were you surprised by the level of detail and effort needed to complete a literature review? How has this article helped to shape your plan to create the literature review for your doctoral study/dissertation?
International Coaching Psychology Review l Vol. 15 No. 2 Autumn 2020 31
Supervision in coaching: Systematic literature review Tatiana Bachkirova, Peter Jackson, Carsten Hennig & Michel Moral
Coaching supervision as a field of knowledge is at an early stage of development, even in comparison to the discipline of coaching. To support and stimulate further progress of the field, this fully inclusive literature review aims to create a comprehensive map of the themes and directions in contemporary publications on coaching supervision. Through the synthesis of findings in 68 selected sources we identified four main themes: clarifying the concept of coaching supervision; the state of theoretical development demonstrated in the literature; the value attributed to supervision and the nature of the current use of the supervision in the field. Based on our analysis we generate potential directions for further research, conceptualisation and theory building. Keywords: coaching supervision; systemic literature review; cochrane review
Coaching supervision: An introduction
T HE FIELD of coaching supervision has shifted unrecognisably even in the last five years. Supervision is now an estab-
lished practice supported by most of the recognised professional bodies and served by a growing cohort of practitioners with specialised training. Organisations often demand that the coaches they contract to should be in supervision. As a result, the whole coaching industry is rapidly changing its attitude to supervision. The most notice- able and welcome change that has happened in the last decade is the significant growth of the coaching discipline (Bachkirova, 2017; Grant, 2017). This growth, by extension, is reflected in the growth of literature and research on coaching supervision. It could be said that coaching supervision is now emerging as a discipline in its own right. As we will demonstrate, however, there is a shortage in the literature of publications that provide robust conceptual founda- tions for the various strands of this devel- oping field with a clear commitment to an academically rigorous, fully referenced and evidence-based approach.
It is important to recognise that the existing literature on supervision in counsel- ling and psychotherapy, although useful in some regard, is not fully applicable to the developing discipline of coaching supervi- sion. This limitation stems from the differ- ences between coaching and psychotherapy practices in the first place (Bachkirova & Baker, 2018; Crowe, 2017). During the last decade coaching modalities have extended from an individual to individual relation- ship to a relationship with groups, teams, and even ‘teams of teams’ or organisa- tions. The focus on the client, typical in psychotherapy, is argued to be insufficient without consideration of the systems and subsystems around them (Gray, 2007, 2017). As coaching becomes more systemic, the nature of supervision for such coaching needs to be explored in its own right. Many difficult questions that are asked in relation to coaching (e.g. ‘who is the client when multiple stakeholders are involved?’) become all the more pertinent when brought to supervision. As coaches adjust their practice according to the needs of organisations, so supervisors have to adapt their approaches,
32 International Coaching Psychology Review l Vol. 15 No. 2 Autumn 2020
Tatiana Bachkirova, Peter Jackson, Carsten Hennig & Michel Moral
too. One potential issue with the literature on coaching supervision in this regard is that published sources are responding to the needs of the industry more slowly than the industry itself is developing. In this situ- ation the professional bodies have taken the initiative in defining the nature of coach supervision, its purpose and what its func- tions should be. They often do this, however, without any evidence of a substantial concep- tual underpinning that would normally be a feature of the peer-reviewed literature.
The current situation, in summary, indi- cates that researchers and academics need to respond faster to the needs of a growing industry. One way to promote and shape research and conceptual work is through comprehensive literature reviews. This work allows a broader view on the published sources and offers an analysis of gaps with appropriate recommendations. However, the only literature review on coaching super- vision that has been published so far is Moyes (2009). Although Moyes raises a number of important concerns in terms of conceptual- ising coaching supervision, the situation has changed significantly in recent years and there is a need for a more inclusive up-to- date systematic literature review.
This, then, is the motivation for this review. Its aim is to support and stimulate further development of the field and to create a comprehensive map of the themes and tendencies in all relevant publications on coaching supervision. More specifically the research questions are as follows: 1. To examine and explicate themes/
constructs emerging from publications on coaching supervision;
2. To identify concepts, questions and research methodologies that are impor- tant for the development of knowledge on coaching supervision.
We made the following decisions in terms of providing a working definition for key concepts. The complexity of this task in rela- tion to coaching supervision was such that
it became one of the themes of this review itself. To define coaching for the purpose of having clear inclusion criteria (to exclude, for example, sport coaching) we adopted a definition from the Complete Handbook of Coaching as an established text in coaching education, namely:
Coaching is a human development process that involves structured, focused interaction and use of appropriate strategies, tools and techniques to promote desirable and sustain- able change for the benefit of the client and potential for other stakeholders. (Bachkirova, Cox & Clutterbuck, 2010, p.1)
In the remainder of this paper, we describe first our methodological approach to this review including our search strategy, inclu- sion criteria, dataset and our approach to the analysis of emergent themes. Then we describe and discuss four main themes/ constructs. Finally, on the basis of these discussions, we generate potential directions for further research, conceptualisation and theory building.
Methods of review The most appropriate approach for conducting a systematic literature review is to some extent dependent on the state of knowledge in the field under consider- ation. In this respect, among the types of review described by The Cochrane founda- tion, qualitative review was considered most appropriate. Qualitative reviews are those ‘that aim to synthesise qualitative evidence to address questions on aspects of interventions other than effectiveness’ (About Cochrane Reviews, n.d.). In general, a systematic litera- ture review (SLR) aims to identify, critically evaluate and integrate data from relevant publications in order to address the research question. Trying to locate more specific guide- lines for addressing our research question we considered three different approaches to literature review: Knowledge-building
International Coaching Psychology Review l Vol. 15 No. 2 Autumn 2020 33
Supervision in coaching: Systematic literature review
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34 International Coaching Psychology Review l Vol. 15 No. 2 Autumn 2020
Tatiana Bachkirova, Peter Jackson, Carsten Hennig & Michel Moral
and theory-generating qualitative systematic review (Finfgeld-Connett & Johnson, 2013), meta-aggregation (Hannes & Lockwood, 2011) and scoping study (Arksy & O’Malley, 2005). Each of these approaches has at least one element that is relevant and useful to our review question. The following is a description of the method that we created by adapting such elements from each approach.
The purpose of knowledge building from Finfgeld-Connett and Johnson (2013) was seen as most suitable, but the step of theory-building requires expansive search, establishing interconnections between concepts and is, therefore, premature for the state of knowledge on coaching supervision. The meta-aggregation approach (Hannes & Lockwood, 2011) similarly has the aim of the synthesis of knowledge using an exhaustive search which is suitable for our task, but it ends with the production of the synthesised statements that inform decision-making at a clinical or policy level. This was deemed excessive for our research questions and could only lead to specific recommenda- tions for further research. Consequently, we followed a combined method that was also enhanced by ideas from scoping studies (Arksey & O’Malley, 2005) which include: a) clarifying the purpose and research ques- tion; b) balancing focus with breadth and comprehensiveness of the review; c) using an iterative team approach to selecting and evaluating studies; d) extracting data for qualitative thematic analysis and e) reporting results with the implications for further research (see Figure 1).
Literature search The literature search for this topic had two major challenges. The first is related to the immaturity of coaching supervision as a field of knowledge. The second is concerned with the main driving force of publications, insofar as the majority of the work in this field is done by practitioners rather than academics and researchers. The implication of the first challenge was that returns from electronic databases on ‘coaching supervi-
sion’ were very limited. Even with the addi- tion of full manual searches of key coaching journals, full manual searches of key confer- ences and following the reference lists of relevant publications, it could fairly be said that in terms of the published literature this field is under-developed. Considering this, we might be open to critique of not expanding the search term. We would argue that our tightly scoped search strategy was justified because of the potential issue of multiple conceptualisations of the term of coaching, and consequently, supervision of coaches, in different and largely unrelated fields. For example, including supervision of sport coaching would be misleading as sport coaching is a different industry with different criteria of quality of practice and different approach to CPD of practitioners.
The implication of the second challenge (the predominance of literature driven by practitioner interests), is the fact that practi- tioners are not inclined to struggle through the labour-intensive process of publishing in peer-refereed journals. Hence the majority of our returns were books, book chapters, conference presentations, reports produced by professional bodies and other commer- cial organisations – a category of literature that is classified as grey (Adams et al., 2017). Although this literature serves the world of practice it has limitations in demonstrating rigour and therefore required an extra effort in terms of establishing eligibility. It is important to say, at the same time, that the field is rapidly developing and we identi- fied a significant number of publications in progress or under discussion between colleagues that appear important. This search has been done between June 2019 and January 2020.
Inclusion criteria Inclusion in the literature review was based on three main criteria: (1) all literature, including books, book chapters and grey literature that indicates coaching supervision in the titles and/or abstract of the publica- tion; (2) the literature on coaching supervi-
International Coaching Psychology Review l Vol. 15 No. 2 Autumn 2020 35
Supervision in coaching: Systematic literature review
sion that fits with the definition of coaching that we described in the Introduction to this paper; (3) the literature on coaching super- vision in English, French and German as the most representative in terms of discussing coaching supervision at this stage.
The first criterion suggests that we included the literature on coaching super- vision that considered coaching delivered outside of organisational or workplace context. Although the majority of the academic literature tends to focus on coaching in this context, grey literature on coaching supervision tends not to exclude support for coaching provided in other contexts, such as family, community, health, education, etc and is therefore included. However, literature associated with sport coaching has been excluded as explained in the previous section.
In relation to grey literature we followed the recommendations for inclusion by Adams et al. (2017) and included sources charac- terised by significant retrievability and cred- ibility. This decision was based on the aim of increasing the relevance and impact of the review for both scholars and practitioners and also helps to increase our understanding of coaching supervision as a complex and emer- gent practice. Furthermore, in a field that is so much in need of conceptual understanding, it would be unwise to exclude contributions that represent reasonable attempts to do just that. However, articles in coaching magazines were not generally included as such rationale is not usually provided. In addition, any grey litera- ture included s
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